Bunreacht Na hÉireann: A Study Of The Irish Text by Micheál Ó Cearúil *

Wise Up Journal
16.10.2008

Foreword Note :
If you ever find yourself in a situation in court, with a Gardai or any other Irish Authority, it is of paramount importance that you know which Constitution and what articles to invoke. What many people do not realise is that written within our Irish Constitution is an article that states in any matter of conflict the Irish language text will prevail over the English language text.

Bunreacht Na hÉireann: A Study Of The Irish Text by Micheál Ó Cearúil (1999)

With that, below is the full literal English translation of the Irish Text.

Bunreacht Na hÉireann: A Study Of The Irish Text by Micheál Ó Cearúil

THE NATION

ARTICLE 1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The nation of Ireland hereby affirm(s)/certif(y)(ies) their

unassignable/inalienable, invincible/conclusive, sovereign/

commanding right to establish whatever type of Government

they themselves choose, to determine their relationship/

relations with other nations, and to promote their

political and economic and learned life in accordance with

the nature / natural bent and practices of their ancestors.

ARTICLE 2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The island of Ireland entirely, along with its islands and

its bordering/territorial seas, is the national territories/

territory.

ARTICLE 3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Until the national territories are made complete again,

and without prejudice to the right of the Parliament and

the Government that is established by this Constitution to

operate jurisdiction in all the national territories, the laws

that will be enacted by that Parliament will apply/relate

to the same area as the laws of the Irish Free State applied/

related to, and they will have the same effect outside of

that area as the laws of the Irish Free-State had.

THE STATE

ARTICLE 4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Éire is the name of the State or, in the English tongue,

Ireland.

ARTICLE 5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ireland is a sovereign/commanding, independent, democratic

State.

ARTICLE 6.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is from the people, under God, that every power of

rule, both legislation and fulfilment and judgement, comes

and it is the people who have the right to appoint the

rulers of the State, and it is up to / rests with the people

finally to settle every question regarding the policies of

the Nation in accordance with what is necessary for the

welfare of the people.

ARTICLE 6.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by the organs of State / State organs that are established

by this Constitution, and by those alone or by/with their

authority, that those powers of rule can be operated.

ARTICLE 7

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The flag of three colours i.e. green, white, and orange,

(is) the national emblem/flag.

ARTICLE 8.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

As/since (the) Irish (language) is / Irish being the national

language it is the principal official language.

ARTICLE 8.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The English tongue is accepted as another official

language.

ARTICLE 8.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But provision may be made by law for either of those

two languages to be a single language for any official

businesses or business throughout the whole State or in

any part of it.

ARTICLE 9.1.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

On the coming into operation of this Constitution anybody

who was a citizen of the Irish Free State immediately before

the coming into operation of this Constitution is a citizen

of Ireland.

ARTICLE 9.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in accordance with law that (the) getting/receiving

and (the) losing/loss (of) Irish nationality and citizenship

will henceforth be determined.

ARTICLE 9.1.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to withhold Irish citizenship and

nationality from any person because that person is male

or female.

ARTICLE 9.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is a basic political duty on each/every citizen to be

faithful/true to the nation and loyal/steadfast to the State.

ARTICLE 10.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

All potential natural wealth, along with the air and all

potential energy, (of that) which is under the jurisdiction

of the Parliament and the Government that is established

by this Constitution, along with every royalty and

exemption/franchise that is under that jurisdiction, they

all belong to the State, without prejudice to whatever

estates and interests that lawfully belong to any person or

to any group at present.

ARTICLE 10.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every land and every mine, mineral, and water which

belonged to the Irish Free State immediately before the

coming into operation of this Constitution (they) all belong

to the State to the extent that they belonged to the Irish

Free State at that time.

ARTICLE 10.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Provision may be made by law to manage / to undertake

the management of the wealth/property that belongs to

the State by virtue of this Article, and to regulate/control

the permanent alienation/assignment or the temporary

alienation/assignment of that wealth/property.

ARTICLE 10.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Provision may be made by law, moreover, to undertake

the management of land, mines, minerals and waters which

will come into the possession of the State after the coming

into operation of this Constitution, and to regulate/control

the permanent alienation/assignment or the temporary

alienation/assignment of the land, the mines, the minerals

and the waters which will thus come into its possession.

ARTICLE 11

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

All the rent of the State whatever its origin, except that

part of it of which an exception is made by law, must be

put into one single fund and appropriated for the purposes

and in the manner, that is decided by law and within the

scope/constraint of the charges/burdens and the liabilities

that are levied by law.

THE PRESIDENT

ARTICLE 12.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ireland will have a President / There will be a President

of Ireland (i.e. the President of Ireland), who is called the

President henceforth in this Constitution; he will have

precedence over everybody in the State, and he must

operate/exercise and perform the powers and the functions

that are given to the President by this Constitution and by

law.

ARTICLE 12.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

(It is) by simple/unqualified direct vote of the people that

the President will be elected.

ARTICLE 12.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every citizen who has a right to vote in an election for

members of Dáil Éireann, (he) will have a right to vote in

an election for the President.

ARTICLE 12.2.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by secret ballot and in accordance with proportional

representation and by the method of the single transferable

vote that the voting will be done.

ARTICLE 12.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President will hold office for seven years from the

day (he) enters into (the responsibility of) / takes up (the

duty of) his office unless it happens before the end of

that term that (he) dies or (that he) relinquishes office or

that he is put out of office, or that permanent disablement/

derangement/misguidance seizes him and that (that) is

established to the satisfaction of the Supreme Court while/

being composed of at least five judges.

ARTICLE 12.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

A person who is or who was a President, (he) is / shall be

electible to that office one (single) other time, but that is

all.

ARTICLE 12.3.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

An election for the office of (the) President must be held

on a day not later than the date of the end of the term of

office of each particular President and not earlier than the

sixtieth day before that date, but if the President is put

out of office, or if (before he enters into the responsibility /

takes up the duty of his office or after that) he happens to

die or resign or permanent disability/misguidance/

derangement established as said seizes him, an election

for the office of (the) President must be held within sixty

days after that thing happens.

ARTICLE 12.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every candidate for the office of (the) President, other

than a person who is or who was a President already, it is

from the following that his nomination must come:

i at least twenty people and each (individual) one/

person of them a member, at the time, of a House

/ one of the Houses of the Oireachtas, or

ii the Councils of at least four administrative Counties

(including County Boroughs) as defined/expounded

by law.

ARTICLE 12.4.3o

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No person and no Council of them is permitted to

participate in the nomination of more than a single

candidate for the office of (the) President in the same

election.

ARTICLE 12.4.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any person who is or who was a President may nominate

himself for the office of (the) President. / It is open to any

person who is or who was a President to nominate himself

for the office of (the) President.

ARTICLE 12.4.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

When only one candidate is nominated for the office of

(the) President, it is not necessary to vote in order to elect

him. / a ballot / voting to elect him is not a necessity.

ARTICLE 12.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the scope/constraint of the provisions of this Article

it is by law that elections to the office of (the) President

will be regulated/controlled.

ARTICLE 12.6.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President is not permitted to be a member of Dáil

Éireann nor of Seanad Éireann.

ARTICLE 12.6.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If a member of either of the Houses of the Oireachtas is

elected to be/become President, it must be deemed that

he has relinquished / parted with membership of that

House.

ARTICLE 12.6.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President is not permitted to have any office or post

of emolument/benefit except his Presidential office.

ARTICLE 12.7

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The first President must enter into the responsibility of

his office as soon as possible after he has been elected,

and every President after that must enter into the

responsibility of his office the day after the end of the

term of office of his predecessor or as soon as possible

after that or, if his predecessor (either) happens to be put

out of office or dies or resigns from office or else that

permanent (mental) disorder/misguidance/incapacity

seizes him and that that is established as is provided by

section 3 of this Article, as soon as possible after the

election.

ARTICLE 12.8

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The way the President will enter into the responsibility of

his office is by publicly making the following declaration

and putting his hand to it in the presence of members of

both Houses of the Oireachtas, and judges of the Supreme

Court and of the High Court and other public gentry/

dignitaries:-


In the presence of God the Almighty, I, , am

solemnly and truly promising and declaring to be a support

and shelter to the Constitution of Ireland, and to preserve

its laws, to fulfil my duties faithfully and conscientiously

in accordance with the Constitution and the law, and to

do my utmost for the welfare and service of the people of

Ireland. God direct me and protect me.

ARTICLE 12.9

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President is not permitted to leave the State while he

is in office, except with the will of the Government.

ARTICLE 12.10.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President may/can be impeached for / on account of

misconduct/misbehaviour that will be cited/stated.

ARTICLE 12.10.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

(It is) either of the Houses of the Oireachtas that will make

the charge/accusation and it is within the scope/constraint

of and according to (the) provisions of this section that it

will be made.

ARTICLE 12.10.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If it is offered/proposed to either of the Houses of the

Oireachtas to take/bring a case against the President under

this section it is not permitted to heed that proposal/motion

except as a result of a written notice of proposal/motion

signed by / under the hand of at least thirty members of

that House.

ARTICLE 12.10.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Neither of the Houses of the Oireachtas is permitted to

accept any such proposal/motion except as a result of a

resolution from that House which will have the support

of at least two-thirds of its full membership.

ARTICLE 12.10.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If either of the Houses of the Oireachtas makes a charge/

accusation under this section the other House must

examine the charge/case or have the charge/case

examined.

ARTICLE 12.10.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President will have the right to be present and to

have advocates/pleaders with him at that examination.

ARTICLE 12.10.7O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the result of that examination is that a resolution is

passed, with the support of at least two-thirds of the full

membership of the House of the Oireachtas that examined

the case or had the case examined, declaring that the

case that was brought against the President was established

and, the misconduct/misbehaviour which caused the

charge, that it is misbehaviour because of which the

President is unsuitable to remain in (possession of) office,

the function of that resolution is to put the President out

of office.

ARTICLE 12.11.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President will have a state-home in Dublin city or

near it.

ARTICLE 12.11.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President will get benefits/emoluments and allowances

as will be determined by law.

ARTICLE 12.11.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to reduce the benefits/emoluments nor

the allowances of the President while he is in office.

ARTICLE 13.1.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President will appoint the Taoiseach i.e. the Head of

Government or the Prime Minister, on his having been

nominated by Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 13.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

On their having been nominated by the Taoiseach, with

the agreement of Dáil Éireann beforehand, the President

will appoint the other members of the Government.

ARTICLE 13.1.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

On the advice of the Taoiseach the President must accept

any member of the Government giving up office, or any

member of the Government being put out of office. / or

put any member of the Government out of office.

ARTICLE 13.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is the President, on the advice of the Taoiseach, who

will convene and dissolve Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 13.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President can, in his own judgement, refuse to dissolve

Dáil Éireann on the advice of a Taoiseach of whom a

majority in Dáil Éireann do not continue to be in support.

ARTICLE 13.2.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President can at any time, after taking advice with

the Council of State, convene either of the Houses of the

Oireachtas, or both of them.

ARTICLE 13.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Each Bill that is passed or deemed to have been passed

by the two Houses of the Oireachtas (it) must have the

signature of the President to it (in order) to enact it into

(a) law.

ARTICLE 13.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every law that / of those which the Oireachtas makes the

President must promulgate it.

ARTICLE 13.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

With this the Defence Forces are put under the highcommand

of the President.

ARTICLE 13.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The high-command over/of the Defence Forces it is by

law that the manner in which it will be operated will be

regulated/controlled.

ARTICLE 13.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is from the President that every vocational/professional

officer of the Defence Forces will have his calling/

profession.

ARTICLE 13.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

With this the President is given a right of pardon/absolving,

and power to mitigate or to remit a punishment which is

imposed on people in any court of criminal jurisdiction,

but, apart from cases of death-sentence, that power of

mitigation or remission may also be given by law to other

authorities.

ARTICLE 13.7.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President may, after taking advice with the Council

of State, put a message or address before the Houses of

the Oireachtas on any thing which has national importance

or public importance.

ARTICLE 13.7.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President may at any time, after taking advice with

the Council of State, put an address before the Nation

regarding anything of that kind.

ARTICLE 13.7.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But in each of those cases the Government must be

satisfied beforehand with the message or the address.

ARTICLE 13.8.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President is not answerable to any House of the

Oireachtas nor to any court in the operation and in the

fulfilment of the powers and functions of his office nor in

any deed which he does or which gives to understand

that it is a deed he does in the operation and in the

fulfilment of those powers and functions.

ARTICLE 13.8.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But the conduct of the President can be put under review

in either of the Houses of the Oireachtas for the purposes

of section 10 of Article 12 of this Constitution, or by any

court, tribunal or body which will be appointed or

nominated by either of the Houses of the Oireachtas to

examine a case under section 10 of that Article.

ARTICLE 13.9

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Apart from a case where it is provided by this Constitution

that the President will act from his own counsel, or after

taking counsel with the Council of State, or that he will

act upon something relating to the Council of State, or on

the advice or nomination of any other group or person,

or upon receipt of any other news from any other group

or person, it is only on the advice of the Government

(that) the President is permitted to operate and fulfil the

powers and the functions that are given to him by this

Constitution.

ARTICLE 13.10

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint/scope of this Constitution further

powers and functions may be given to the President by

law.

ARTICLE 13.11

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President is not permitted to operate nor to fulfil any

power or function (of those) which are granted to him by

law except on the advice of the Government.

ARTICLE 14.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the President is absent or if (he) is temporarily incapacitated/

deranged, or if (he) is permanently incapacitated/

deranged and that this is established as provided by section

3 of Article 12 of this Constitution, or if it happens that he

dies or he gives up / relinquishes office or (he) is put out

of office, or if he fails to operate and fulfil the powers and

functions of his office or any one of them, or if the office

of the President is vacant, it is a Commission which will

be composed as provided in section 2 of this Article that

will operate and fulfil the powers and the functions that

are bestowed on the President by this Constitution or

under it.

ARTICLE 14.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The following people are the Commission, i.e. the Chief

Justice, the Chairman of Dáil Éireann (The Ceann

Comhairle) and the Chairman of Seanad Éireann.

ARTICLE 14.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President of the High Court will act as a member of

the Commission instead of the Chief Justice any time that

the office of the Chief Justice is vacant or that the Chief

Justice will not be / is not able to act.

ARTICLE 14.2.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Vice-Chairman of Dáil Éireann will act as a member

of the Commission instead of the Chairman of Dáil Éireann

any time that the office of the Chairman of Dáil Éireann is

vacant or that that Chairman will not be / is not able to

act.

ARTICLE 14.2.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Vice-Chairman of Seanad Éireann will act as a member

of the Commission instead of the Chairman of Seanad

Éireann any time that the office of the Chairman of Seanad

Éireann is vacant or that that Chairman will not be / is not

able to act.

ARTICLE 14.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is lawful for the Commission to act through any two of

their number and to act despite a vacancy in their

membership.

ARTICLE 14.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Council of State will be able/may, by/with a majority

of its members, to make whatever provision they deem

fit/proper to operate and to fulfil the powers and the

functions which are bestowed on the President by this

Constitution or under it in any case where provision is

not made for it by the preceding provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 14.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The provisions of this Constitution that relate to the

President operating and fulfilling the powers and the

functions that are conferred on him by this Constitution

218 The Constitution of Ireland Bunreacht na hÉireann

or under it they will relate, within the scope/constraint of

the following provisions of this section, to the operation

and to the fulfilment of those powers and functions under

this Article.

ARTICLE 14.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the President fails to operate or to fulfil any power or

function that he must, according to this Constitution or

under it, operate or fulfil by/within a stated time, it must

be operated or fulfilled under this Article as soon as

possible after the time so stated.

THE NATIONAL PARLIAMENT

ARTICLE 15.1.1O

CONSTITUTION AND POWERS

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas is the name of the National Parliament,

and that is what it is usually called in this Constitution.

ARTICLE 15.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas consists of the President and two Houses:

a House of Representatives which is called Dáil Éireann,

and a Senate which is called Seanad Éireann.

ARTICLE 15.1.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in the city of Dublin or in its vicinity, or wherever

else they decide from time to time, that the Houses of the

Oireachtas will sit.

ARTICLE 15.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The only power to make laws for the State is hereby

given to the Oireachtas alone; no other legislative authority

whatsoever has power to make laws for the State.

ARTICLE 15.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But provision may be made by law to set up or accept

sub-legislatures, and to lay out the powers and functions

of those sub-legislatures.

ARTICLE 15.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas can make provision for the establishment

or acceptance of / to establish or accept executive and

vocational councils, which represent sections of the social/

societal life and of the economic life of the people.

ARTICLE 15.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any law establishing such a council or under which it is

accepted must have/contain an interpretation/clarification/

illustration of the rights, the powers and the duties of that

council, and moreover of its mutual relationship with the

Oireachtas and with the Government.

ARTICLE 15.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas is not permitted to enact any law which

would be in any way against this Constitution or against

any provision of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 15.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of any law (of those) which the Oireachtas

enacts being in any way against this Constitution or against

any provision of this Constitution it will be without validity

to the extent that it will be against this Constitution and to

that extent alone.

ARTICLE 15.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas is not permitted to say that acts which

were not an infringement of law while they were being

done are an infringement of law.

ARTICLE 15.6.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

(It is) The Oireachtas alone (that) has the right to establish

and maintain military forces or armed forces.

ARTICLE 15.6.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not / shall not be lawful to establish or maintain for

any purpose any military force or armed force whatsoever,

apart from a military force or an armed force which is

established and which is maintained by the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 15.7

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas must sit at least once a year.

ARTICLE 15.8.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is publicly that each House of the Oireachtas will sit. /

Each House of the Oireachtas will sit publicly.

ARTICLE 15.8.2o

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But in the case of there being a special exigency, either

of the two Houses can sit privately provided that two

thirds of the members (who will be / are) present consent

to it.

ARTICLE 15.9.1O

LITERAL TRANSLATION

Each individual House of the Oireachtas will elect its own

Chairman and Vice-Chairman from its own membership,

and will lay out for them their powers and their duties.

ARTICLE 15.9.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by law that the salary of the Chairman and

Vice-Chairman of each separate House will be decided.

ARTICLE 15.10

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Each particular House will make its own standing orders

and rules, and each House of them will have the power

to fix a penalty for those who transgress them; it will

have in addition to that the power to secure freedom of

argument and to protect its own official writings/

documents and the private papers of its members, and

moreover to protect itself and its members from any person

or any group of people who would interfere with or inhibit

its members or who would try to corrupt them while they

are doing their duties.

ARTICLE 15.11.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Apart from a case for which an alternative is provided for

by this Constitution the way judgement will be given on

each question in each particular House is by a majority of

the votes of the members (who will be) present and voting

but not including the Chairman or the member who will

be / is in charge.

ARTICLE 15.11.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the number of votes on the two sides is the same the

Chairman, or the member (who will be) in charge, will

have a deciding vote which he must give.

ARTICLE 15.11.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by its standing orders that it will be decided how

many members are / will be necessary for an assembly of

either of the two Houses in order that it have power to

function.

ARTICLE 15.12

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every official publication and report from the Oireachtas

and from each of its Houses, along with any statement

made in any of those Houses, they are free from matters

of law wherever (they are) published.

ARTICLE 15.13

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The members of each House of the Oireachtas are free

from arrest while in the sanctuary of either of the two

Houses or (while) coming to it or going from it, except in

the case of treason, as it is defined in this Constitution, or

in the case of felony or breaking the peace and, whatever

statement a member will make in any of those Houses,

he is not chargeable because of it in any court or by any

authority except the House itself.

ARTICLE 15.14

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No person is permitted to be a member of (the) two Houses

of the Oireachtas at the same time, and anybody who will

be a member of one of those Houses and (who) will be

made a member of the other House, it must be immediately

deemed that he has given up the first place.

ARTICLE 15.15

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas may make provision by law to pay

allowances to (the) members of each of its Houses for

their duties in the capacity of public representatives, and

that they would be granted, as regards their duties, facility

to travel gratis and whatever other facility the Oireachtas

decides, if it decides.

ARTICLE 16.1.1O

DÁIL ÉIREANN

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every citizen, whether man or woman, who has completed/

reached twenty-one years and who is not put under

disabilty or incapacity/derangement by this Constitution

nor by law, he is electable to (the) membership of Dáil

Éireann.

ARTICLE 16.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

i Every citizen, and

ii whatever other people in the State that will be

determined by law,

whether men or women, who have completed eighteen

years and who are not put under disqualification by law,

and who fulfil the conditions of (the) law regarding election

of members to Dáil Éireann, they have a right to vote in

an election of members to Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 16.1.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to enact any law which would put any

citizen, because that citizen is a man or a woman, under

disability or incapacity/derangement as regards his being

a member of Dáil Éireann or which would disqualify any

citizen or any other person, or that same ground, from

being entitled to vote in an election of members to Dáil

Éireann.

ARTICLE 16.1.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No elector (whatsoever) is permitted to give more than

one vote in an election for Dáil Éireann, and it is by secret

ballot that the voting will be done.

ARTICLE 16.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The membership of Dáil Éireann (is/comprises) representatives

for constituencies that are provided/arranged by

law.

ARTICLE 16.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The complement of members of Dáil Éireann will be

arranged by law from time to time but their full complement

is not permitted to be under a member for every

thirty thousand of the population, nor over a member for

every twenty thousand of the population.

ARTICLE 16.2.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The proportion that there will be between the number of

members who will be elected / for election at any time

for each particular constituency and the population of

each particular constituency, according to the latest census

made before that, it must be in balance / at par, in as far as

possible, throughout the whole region/district.

ARTICLE 16.2.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Oireachtas must re-evaluate the constituencies at least

once every twelve years having due regard to any changes

in the position of the population; but any of the changes

which will be made to the constituencies (they) will not

come into force during the span of life of the Dáil which

will be sitting during that re-evaluation.

ARTICLE 16.2.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in accordance with proportional representation and

in the manner of the single transferable vote that the

members will be elected.

ARTICLE 16.2.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to enact a law which would bring under

three (people) the number of members that are to be

elected for any constituency.

ARTICLE 16.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Dáil Éireann must be convened and dissolved as arranged

by section 2 of Article 13 of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 16.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There must be a general election for members for Dáil

Éireann on a day not later than thirty days after dissolving

Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 16.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The voting for each particular general election for Dáil

Éireann (it) must be done, in as far as it is possible, (on)

the same day throughout the whole area.

ARTICLE 16.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Dáil Éireann must come together within thirty days from

that voting day.

ARTICLE 16.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any Dáil Éireann will have a period of but seven years

from the day of its first assembly: a period which is shorter

than that can be provided by law.

ARTICLE 16.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The member of Dáil Éireann who will be Chairman

immediately before the dissolution of Dáil Éireann

provision must be made by law so that it may be deemed

that that member is elected to Dáil Éireann in the next

general election, without his undergoing election.

ARTICLE 16.7

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the scope/constraint of those provisions before us

/ the foregoing provisions of this Article it is in accordance

with law that elections to membership of Dáil Éireann

will be regulated, along with filling casual/occasional

vacancies.

ARTICLE 17.1.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

As soon as (it is) possible after putting the Estimates on

(the) receipts of the State and the Estimates on the State’s

expenditure for any financial year before Dáil Éireann

under Article 28 of this Constitution, Dáil Éireann must

consider those Estimates.

ARTICLE 17.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The legislation which will be necessary to give legal effect

to the Financial Resolutions of each particular year (it)

must be enacted that very year except in so far as will

otherwise be arranged in regard to each particular case in

an enactment to that end.

ARTICLE 17.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not lawful for Dáil Éireann to pass a vote or resolution,

nor it is not lawful to enact any law, to appropriate the

state rent nor any other public money (whatsoever), unless

Dáil Éireann has a message from the Government under

the hand of the Taoiseach recommending the purpose of

the appropriation to them.

ARTICLE 18.1

SEANAD ÉIREANN

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The complement of Seanad Éireann (is) sixty members,

i.e. eleven who will be nominated and forty-nine who

will be elected.

ARTICLE 18.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

So that a person would be acceptable on the membership

of Seanad Éireann he must be acceptable on the

membership of Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 18.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The members who will be nominated for Seanad Éireann

(they) will be nominated with prior-permission from

themselves by the Taoiseach who will be appointed on

the re-assembly of Dáil Éireann after the dissolution of

Dáil Éireann which causes those members to be

nominated.

ARTICLE 18.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The members who will be elected for Seanad Éireann, it

is in the following manner they will be elected: –

i The National University of Ireland will elect three.

ii Dublin University will elect three.

iii Forty-three (people) will be elected from rolls of

candidates which will be arranged in the manner

provided here following.

ARTICLE 18.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Provision may be made by law so that there will be elected

in accordance with an electoral system, and in the manner,

(that will be) provided by law, by one or more of the

following institutions, that is / namely:

i the Universities mentioned in subsection 1o of this

section,

ii any other institutions of higher-education in the State,

that number of members of Seanad Éireann that will be

provided for by law in place of an equal/equivalent

number of the members who will be / are to be elected

pursuant to paragraphs i and ii of that subsection 1o.

A member or members of Seanad Éireann may be

elected under this subsection by institutions which will

be collected together or by a single institution.

ARTICLE 18.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to plead anything that is in this Article

in order to prohibit a University which is mentioned in

subsection 1o of this section being dissolved in accordance

with law.

ARTICLE 18.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every election that there will be for the members who

will be elected to Seanad Éireann it is in accordance with

proportional representation that it will be done and in

the manner of the single transferable vote, by secret postal

ballot.

ARTICLE 18.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The members who will be elected for Seanad Éireann by

the Universities it is in accordance with an electoral system,

and in the manner, which will be provided by law that

they will be elected.

ARTICLE 18.7.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Before each general election for the members for Seanad

Éireann who will be elected from rolls of candidates there

will be arranged in the manner (that will be) provided by

law five rolls of candidates on which will be names of

people who will have knowledge and practice of the

following affairs and services respectively:-

ARTICLE 18.7.1Oi

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

i Irish and the National Intellectual Tradition, Literature,

Art, Education and whatever professions will be set

out / defined by law for the purpose of this roll;

ARTICLE 18.7.1Oii, iii

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

ii Agriculture, along with affairs which are related to it,

and Fishing;

iii Labour, whether it is formally organised or not;

ARTICLE 18.7.1°iv, v

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

iv Industry and Commerce including banking, finance,

accountancy, engineering and building-construction;

v Public Administration and societal services, and including

voluntary societal/social work.

ARTICLE 18.7.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to elect more than eleven people nor,

within the scope/constraint of the provisions of Article 19

of this Constitution, less than five of the members of Seanad

Éireann from any particular roll.

ARTICLE 18.8

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There must be a general election for Seanad Éireann on a

day not later than ninety days after the dissolution of Dáil

Éireann, and Seanad Éireann must come together for/on

(its) first assembly after the general election (on a) day

that the President will decide for that on the advice of the

Taoiseach.

ARTICLE 18.9

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Each member of Seanad Éireann will continue in his office,

unless (he) dies or unless (he) gives up office or unless

he is disqualified, until the day before the voting day for

the first general election that there will be for Seanad

Éireann after electing him or after nominating him.

ARTICLE 18.10.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the scope/constraint of those foregoing provisions

of this Article, it is in accordance with law that each election

for the members who will be elected to Seanad Éireann

will be regulated.

ARTICLE 18.10.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by nomination by the Taoiseach that casual vacancies

in the number of the members who are nominated to

Seanad Éireann will be filled, with the prior permission of

the people who will be nominated.

ARTICLE 18.10.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in the manner which is provided by law that casual

vacancies in the number of the members who are elected

to Seanad Éireann will be filled.

ARTICLE 19

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Provision may be made / It will be possible to make

provision by law so that any functional or vocational group,

or any functional or vocational body or council, would

be able to elect directly as many members to Seanad

Éireann as will be determined by that law, in place of the

same amount of the members who will be elected from

the co-rolls of candidates which will be arranged under

Article 18 of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 20.1

LEGISLATION

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every Bill which is initiated in Dáil Éireann and which is

passed by Dáil Éireann must be sent to Seanad Éireann

and, unless it is a Money Bill, Seanad Éireann can/may

amend it, and Dáil Éireann must consider any amendment

of that kind.

ARTICLE 20.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is lawful to initiate a Bill which is not a Money Bill in

Seanad Éireann, and if Seanad Éireann pass(es) it it must

be brought in in Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 20.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If a Bill is initiated in Seanad Éireann and Dáil Éireann

amends it, it must be deemed to be a Bill which was

initiated in Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 20.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

A Bill which is passed by either of the two Houses and

which the other House accepts (it) must be deemed that

it was passed by the two Houses.

ARTICLE 21.1.1O

Money Bills

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in Dáil Éireann alone that it is permitted to initiate

Money Bills.

ARTICLE 21.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Each Money Bill which is passed by Dáil Éireann must be

sent to Seanad Éireann for their recommendations

regarding it.

ARTICLE 21.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Each Money Bill which is sent to Seanad Éireann for their

recommendations regarding it, it must be sent back to

Dáil Éireann at the end of a period not longer than

twenty-one days after sending the Bill to Seanad Éireann,

and Dáil Éireann may accept or refuse/reject all the

recommendations from Seanad Éireann or any part of

them.

ARTICLE 21.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If that Money Bill is not sent back from Seanad Éireann to

Dáil Éireann within those twenty-one days, or if it is sent

back within those twenty-one days along with

recommendations which Dáil Éireann does not accept, it

must be deemed that the two Houses passed it at the end

of those twenty-one days.

ARTICLE 22.1.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

What is meant by a Money Bill is a Bill which contains

only provisions for all of the following matters or any

part of them i.e. imposing, repealing, remitting, changing

or regulating taxation; laying charges on public moneys

to pay debts or for other financial objectives, or changing

or repealing such charges; provision/supply; appropriating,

receiving, keeping or issuing public money, or scrutinizing

accounts of it; collecting or guaranteeing or repaying any

loan; subsidiary matters which are connected with those

things or with any part of them.

ARTICLE 22.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In that explanation no taxation, money or loan which

local bodies or authorities collect for local purposes are

included under the words
“taxation”, “public money” and


loan”, respectively.

ARTICLE 22.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If it is the opinion of the Chairman of Dáil Éireann that

any particular Bill is a Money Bill he must certify that it is

a Money Bill and, within the scope/constraint of the

following provisions of this section, there will be no

bypassing that certification.

ARTICLE 22.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Seanad Éireann can/may pass a resolution in an assembly

in which not less than thirty members will be present,

requesting the President to put a question before a

Committee of Privileges to see whether the Bill is a Money

Bill or is not.

ARTICLE 22.2.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the President assents to the request after taking counsel

with the Council of State, he must appoint a Committee

of Privileges. (It is) The same number of members of Dáil

Éireann and of Seanad Éireann (that) will be on that Committee,

with a judge of the Supreme Court as Chairman

over them. It is after taking counsel with the Council of

State that those appointments will be made. If the number

of votes on both sides is the same the Chairman will have

a vote, but if it is not the same he will not.

ARTICLE 22.2.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President must put the question before the Committee

of Privileges that will be appointed in that way, and the

Committee must send their judgement on the question to

the President within twenty-one days after the day the

Bill was sent to Seanad Éireann.

ARTICLE 22.2.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There will be no bypassing the judgement of the Committee.

ARTICLE 22.2.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the President rejects Seanad Éireann
’s request after taking

counsel with the Council of State, or if the Committee of

Privileges do not express their judgement within the period

mentioned here before us, the certification of the Chairman

of Dáil Éireann will stand.

ARTICLE 23.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Period to Consider Bills

This Article relates to each Bill which Dáil Éireann passes

and which is sent to Seanad Éireann, except a Money Bill

or a Bill the period for the consideration of which by

Seanad Éireann was shortened under Article 24 of this

Constitution.

ARTICLE 23.1.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If it happens, within the particular period (that is)

mentioned in the next subsection, that Seanad Éireann

rejects any Bill to which this Article relates, or that Seanad

Éireann passes the Bill and amendments to it which Dáil

Éireann rejects, or if Seanad Éireann does not pass the

Bill (whether amended or without amendment/amending)

or (does not) reject it within the particular period, then if

Dáil Éireann passes a resolution to that end within one

hundred and eighty days after the expiration of the

particular period, it must be deemed that that Bill was

passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas (on) the day

(that) the resolution was passed.

ARTICLE 23.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ninety days, or any period (which is) longer than that

which both Houses of the Oireachtas settle together with

regard to the Bill, (is) the particular period, and the

commencement of the period is the day that the Bill is

first sent from Dáil Éireann to Seanad Éireann.

ARTICLE 23.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

That preceding section of this Article concerns each Bill

which is initiated in Seanad Éireann and (which is) passed

by Seanad Éireann, and (which is) amended by Dáil

Éireann, and that it is deemed for that reason that it was

in Dáil Éireann it was initiated.

ARTICLE 23.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

To that end it is the day on which the Bill is sent to

Seanad Éireann for the first time after its amendment by

Dáil Éireann that the particular period for that Bill

commences.

ARTICLE 24.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If Dáil Éireann passes a Bill, other than a Bill which is

mentioned as being a Bill which contains a proposal to

amend the Constitution, and the Taoiseach sends written

messages to the President and to the Chairman of each

House of the Oireachtas, affirming to them that it is the

opinion of the Government that there is an urgency and

necessity (to have) the Bill immediately to protect the

peace and security of the people, or that there is an urgency

and necessity to have it immediately because of there

being a public internal or international emergency, then

if Dáil Éireann so determines by resolution, and the

President assents to the resolution, after taking counsel

with the Council of State, the period in which that Bill

will be left under the consideration of Seanad Éireann

must be shortened and put under the limit which is

mentioned in the resolution.

ARTICLE 24.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any Bill the period for the consideration of which by

Seanad Éireann was shortened under this Article, if it

happens,

(a) in the case of a Bill which is not a Money Bill, that

Seanad Éireann rejects it or that Seanad Éireann passes

it along with amendments which Dáil Éireann rejects

or that Seanad Éireann does not pass nor reject it, or,

(b) in the case of a Money Bill, that Seanad Éireann sends

it back to Dáil Éireann along with recommendations

which Dáil Éireann does not accept or that Seanad

Éireann does not send it back to Dáil Éireann,

within the period mentioned in the resolution, it must be

deemed that the Bill was passed by both Houses of the

Oireachtas at the end of that period.

ARTICLE 24.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

On a Bill the period for the consideration of which by

Seanad Éireann was shortened under this Article being

made law, it will be in force for a period of ninety days

from the date of its enactment, but that will be all, unless

both Houses of the Oireachtas agree before the end of

that period (that) that law remain in force for a period

which is longer than that, and that the period that is so

agreed is mentioned in resolutions by both Houses.

ARTICLE 25.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Signing and Promulgating Laws

As soon as a Bill is passed, other than a Bill which is

mentioned/stated to be a Bill in which there is a proposal

to amend this Constitution, or is deemed to have been

passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas, the Taoiseach

must offer that Bill to the President to put his hand to it

and to promulgate it as a law in accordance with the

provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 25.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Apart from a case for which the contrary is provided by

this Constitution, each Bill which is offered to the President

in that way to put his hand to it and to promulgate it (as)

law, he must put his hand to it on a day not earlier than

the fifth day and not later than the seventh day after the

day the Bill is offered to him.

ARTICLE 25.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

On the petition/request of the Government, with the joint

consent of Seanad Éireann beforehand, the President may

put his hand to any Bill which gives rise to that petition/

request earlier than the fifth day after the aforesaid date.

ARTICLE 25.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every Bill the period for the consideration of which by

Seanad Éireann was shortened under Article 24 of this

Constitution, the President must put his hand to it (on)

the day that that Bill is offered to him to sign it and to

promulgate it as law.

ARTICLE 25.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every Bill becomes law the day the President puts his

hand to it under this Constitution and it is a law (on) that

day and from that day on and, unless it is clear that there

is a contrary intention in regard to it, that is the day it

comes into operation.

ARTICLE 25.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every Bill to which the President puts his hand under this

Constitution he must promulgate it as law by a notice in

the Official Journal, under an order from him, saying that

the Bill is law.

ARTICLE 25.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The text of a Bill to which the President will put his hand

is the text which was passed or is deemed to have been

passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas and, if a Bill is

passed or if it is deemed to have been so passed in the

two official languages, the President will put his hand to

the Irish text and to the English text of the Bill.

ARTICLE 25.4.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the event of the President
’s putting his hand to the text

of a Bill in one of the official languages and in that language

only, an official translation must be brought out in the

other official language.

ARTICLE 25.4.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

As soon as is possible after signing a Bill and promulgating

it as law, the text of that law on which will be the

President
’s hand/signature or, in the case of the President’s

hand/signature being on the Irish text and on the English

text of that law, those two signed texts must be put into

its journal or into their journal in the office of the Recorder

of the Supreme Court, and the text that will be so put into

its journal, or the two texts that will be so put into their

journal, is/are irrefutable evidence of the provisions of

that law.

ARTICLE 25.4.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the event that the Irish text and the English text of a

law are put into their journal under this section and those

two texts are not in accord with one another, (it is) the

Irish text which will have supremacy/dominance.

ARTICLE 25.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is lawful for the Taoiseach to bring about, from time to

time according as he sees that there is a need for it, that a

text (in Irish and in English) of this Constitution, as it will

be in force at that time and in which will be all the

amendments which will have been made to it up to then,

be prepared under his guidance.

ARTICLE 25.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every text which will be so prepared the President must

put his hand to a copy of it on its being verified by the

signatures of the Taoiseach and the Chief Justice, and that

copy must be put into its journal in the office of the

Recorder of the Supreme Court.

ARTICLE 25.5.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The copy which will be so signed and put into its journal

and which is the latest text, having been so prepared, at

the particular time, it will be, on being so put into its

journal, irrefutable evidence of this Constitution as it will

be on the date of that copy
’s being so put into its journal

and, to that end, it will take the place of all the texts of

this Constitution copies of which will have been so put

into their journal before that.

ARTICLE 25.5.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the event that the texts of any particular copy of this

Constitution which will be put into its journal under this

section are not in accord with one another, it is the Irish

text which will have dominance/supremacy.

ARTICLE 26

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Submitting Bills to the Supreme Court for determination

This Article applies to every Bill which is passed or is

deemed to have been passed by the two Houses of the

Oireachtas, except a Money Bill, or a Bill which is stated

to be a Bill which contains a proposal to amend the Constitution,

or a Bill the period for the consideration of which

by Seanad Éireann was shortened under Article 24 of this

Constitution.

ARTICLE 26.1.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President is permitted, after taking counsel with the

Council of State, to submit any Bill to which this Article

relates to the Supreme Court for determination whether

that Bill or any (particular) provisions or provision of it

are contrary to this Constitution or contrary to any provision

of it.

ARTICLE 26.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In every case of that kind the Bill must be submitted to

the Court for determination (on) a day which is not later

than the seventh day after the date on which the Taoiseach

offers the Bill to the President to put his hand to it.

ARTICLE 26.1.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any Bill which is submitted to the Supreme Court for

determination under this Article, the President is not

permitted to put his hand to it until the Court gives its

decision.

ARTICLE 26.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Supreme Court, a court in which there will be at least

five judges, must consider every question which the

President submits to it for determination under this Article

and, after listening to arguments from the Attorney General

or on his behalf and from barristers who will be chosen

by the Court, it must give its decision on that question

publicly in the court as soon as possible and, at any rate,

(on) a day not later than sixty days after submitting the

question to it for determination.

ARTICLE 26.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The judgement which the majority of the judges of the

Supreme Court give, that is the judgement of the Court

for the purposes of this Article and he who will announce

that judgement is that one of those judges whom the Court

will appoint to that end, and it is not permitted to announce

any other opinion, agreeing or disagreeing with that

judgement, nor is it permitted to disclose that there is any

other opinion of that kind.

ARTICLE 26.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of any Bill which is submitted to the Supreme

Court for determination under this Article, if it is the

judgement of the Court that any provision of it is contrary

to this Constitution or contrary to any provision of it, the

President must decline to put his hand to that Bill.

ARTICLE 26.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the event of a request having been sent to the President

under Article 27 of this Constitution with regard to a Bill

to which that Article applies, that Article must be fulfilled.

ARTICLE 26.3.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In every other case the President must put his hand to the

Bill as soon as possible after the day the Supreme Court

gives its judgement.

ARTICLE 27

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Submitting Bills to the People for determination

This Article applies to every Bill, other than a Bill which

is stated/mentioned as being a Bill in which there is a

proposal to amend this Constitution, which is deemed,

by virtue of Article 23 of this Constitution, to have been

passed by the two Houses of the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 27.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

A majority of the members of Seanad Éireann, along with

at least a third of the members of Dáil Éireann, are

permitted to send a joint-appeal to the President under

this Article, asking him to decline to put his hand to any

Bill to which this Article applies and (to decline) to

promulgate that Bill as law, because of its having a

proposal in which there is so much national importance

that the judgement of the people on it should be obtained.

ARTICLE 27.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every petition/appeal of that kind must be in writing and

under the hand of the petitioners and their signatures

must be verified in the manner ordered by law.

ARTICLE 27.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There must be a clear account in every petition of that

kind of the particular matter or matters on which it is

based, and (it must) be offered to the President on a day

not later than four days after the date on which the Bill is

deemed to have been passed by the two Houses of the

Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 27.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

As soon as the President gets a petition under this Article

he must consider it and, after taking counsel with the

Council of State, give his judgement on it (on) a day not

later than ten days after the day that that Bill to which the

petition relates/applies is deemed to have been passed,

by the two Houses of the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 27.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of the Bill or of any provision of it being

referred to the Supreme Court for determination under

Article 26 of this Constitution the President will not have

to consider the petition if the Supreme Court, in consequence

of that submission for determination, does not

announce or until the Supreme Court does announce a

judgement declaring that that Bill or that provision of it

is not contrary to this Constitution nor contrary to any

provision of it and, in the case of the Supreme Court
’s

announcing a judgement affirming that, the President will

not have to announce his judgement on the petition for

six days after the day the judgement of the Supreme Court

will be announced affirming as stated.

ARTICLE 27.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of every Bill which is the ground for a petition

under this Article, if it is the judgement of the President

that it contains a proposal which is of such national importance

that the judgement of the people should be obtained

on it, he must send a written document under his hand

and under his Seal to the Taoiseach and to the Chairman

of each House of the Oireachtas informing them of that,

and he must decline to put his hand to that Bill and to

promulgate it (as) law unless the proposal is accepted,

and until it is accepted

ARTICLE 27.5.1Oi, ii

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

i by the will of the people in a Referendum in

accordance with the provisions of section 2 of Article

47 of this Constitution, within eighteen months from

the day the President gives his decision, or

ii by resolution by Dáil Éireann passed within the

aforesaid period after Dáil Éireann has dissolved and

re-assembled.

ARTICLE 27.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Whenever a proposal (which is) in a Bill which is ground

for a petition under this Article is accepted by the will of

the people or by a resolution by Dáil Éireann in accordance

with the foregoing provisions of this section, that Bill must

be offered to the President as soon as possible after its

acceptance, in order to put his hand to it and to promulgate

it as law, and thereupon the President must put his hand

to the Bill and duly promulgate it as law.

ARTICLE 27.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of each Bill which is ground for a petition

under this Article, if it is the judgement of the President

that there is no proposal in it that is of such national

importance that the judgement of the people on it should

be obtained, he must send a written document under his

hand and under his Seal to the Taoiseach and to the

Chairman of each House of the Oireachtas informing them

of that, and put his hand to that Bill on a day not later

than eleven days after the day that that Bill is deemed to

have been passed by the two Houses of the Oireachtas,

and duly promulgate it as law.

THE GOVERNMENT

ARTICLE 28.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The complement of members of the Government is at

least seven (people), and at most fifteen people, and it is

the President who will appoint those members in

accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 28.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint/scope of the provisions of this

Constitution, it is the Government that will operate, or it

is with the authority of the Government that will be

operated, the implemental power of the State.

ARTICLE 28.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not lawful to declare war nor for the State to partake

in any war except with the agreement of Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 28.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But the Government may, in the case of invasion, do

anything that they consider necessary to defend the State,

and if Dáil Éireann is not sitting it must be convened as

soon as is possible.

ARTICLE 28.3.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to plead anything that is in this

Constitution to invalidate any law which the Oireachtas

enacts if it is stated in it that it is a law to ensure the

security of the people and to preserve the State in time of

war or armed revolt, nor to nullify any act which is done

or which gives to understand that it is an act done in time

of war or armed revolt in pursuance of any such law. In

this subsection,
“time of war” covers a time when armed

conflict in which the State is not participating will be in

progress but that each House of the Oireachtas will have

decided by resolution in regards to it that, because of that

armed conflict, a state of national emergency exists which

makes a difference to the basis of the life of the State and


time of war or armed revolt” covers that period of time

which there will be between the time any war, or any

armed conflict of the aforementioned kind, or armed revolt

is put to an end and the time that each House of the

Oireachtas decides by resolution that the state of national

emergency which that war, or that armed conflict, or that

armed revolt caused, no longer exists.

ARTICLE 28.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Government is answerable to Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 28.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in joint authority that the Government will come

together and will act, and they are all together responsible

for the Departments of State that are administered by

members of the Government.

ARTICLE 28.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Government must prepare Estimates of the Income

of the State and Estimates of the Expenditure of the State

for each financial year, and put them before Dáil Éireann

for their consideration.

ARTICLE 28.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach is the title of the head of the Government,

i.e. the Prime Minister, and that is what he is called in the

Constitution.

ARTICLE 28.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach must give information in general to the

President on matters which relate to internal policy and

to external policy.

ARTICLE 28.6.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach must nominate a member of the Government

to be Tánaiste.

ARTICLE 28.6.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the Taoiseach dies or if he becomes permanently incapacitated/

deranged/confused, the Tánaiste must act for every

A study of the Irish text Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge 421

purpose in place of the Taoiseach until another Taoiseach

is appointed.

ARTICLE 28.6.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Tánaiste must, moreover, act on behalf of or in place

of the Taoiseach while he is temporarily absent.

ARTICLE 28.7.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach and the Tánaiste and that member of the

Government who will be in charge of the Department of

Finance must be members of Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 28.7.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The other members of the Government must be members

of Dáil Éireann or of Seanad Éireann but it is not lawful

that more than two of them be members of Seanad Éireann.

ARTICLE 28.8

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every member of the Government has the right to be

present and to speak in each House of the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 28.9.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach may give up office at any time by informing

the President of that.

ARTICLE 28.9.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any other member of the Government may give up office

by informing the Taoiseach of that in order to put the

matter before the President.

ARTICLE 28.9.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President must accept any member of the Government,

other than the Taoiseach, giving up office if the

Taoiseach recommends that to him.

ARTICLE 28.9.4°

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach may at any time, for reasons which he

himself considers sufficient, ask a member of the

Government to give up office; if that member does not

act in accordance with that request, the President must

put that member out of office if the Taoiseach so advises.

ARTICLE 28.10

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any time that a majority in Dáil Éireann does not continue

to be in support of the Taoiseach, he must give up office

unless the President dissolves Dáil Éireann on the advice

of the Taoiseach and the Taoiseach succeeds in getting

the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann on the reassembly

of Dáil Éireann after the dissolution.

ARTICLE 28.11.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the Taoiseach gives up office at any time, it must be

considered that the rest of the members of the Government

give up office also; but the Taoiseach and the rest of the

members of the Government will continue with their duties

until their successors are appointed.

ARTICLE 28.11.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The members of the Government who will be in office

on the day of a dissolution of Dáil Éireann, they will

continue in their office until their successors are appointed.

ARTICLE 28.12

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The following matters will be regulated in accordance

with law i.e. the organization of Departments of State and

the division of business between them, the appointment

of members of the Government to be Ministers in charge

of those Departments, the fulfilling of the functions relating

to the office of a member of the Government while that

member is absent for a period or (mentally) incapacitated,

and the salary of members of the Government.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

ARTICLE 29.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ireland affirms that she wishes peace and co-operation,

in accordance with international equity and international

morality, to be established between the nations of the

world.

ARTICLE 29.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ireland further affirms that she wishes that all strife between

nations should be settled peacefully by international

arbitration or by judicial decision.

ARTICLE 29.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ireland accepts the generally acknowledged fundamental

rules of international law to be a guide for Ireland in its

relations with other States.

ARTICLE 29.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In accordance with Article 28 of this Constitution it is the

Government which will operate, or it is with the authority

of the Government that will be operated, the discharging

power of the State as regards its external relations.

ARTICLE 29.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

So that any discharging function of the State can be

operated as regards its external relations the Government

will be able, to the extent that will be decided by law and

within the constraint/scope of whatever conditions will

be decided by law, if it is decided, to utilise or accept any

organ of state or instrument or procedure which is utilized

or accepted for such a purpose by the nations which are

members of any group or any association of nations with

which the State is or will be in coalition/alignment for

international co-operation in affairs which concern them

all.

ARTICLE 29.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State may be a member of the European Coal and

Steel Community (which was established by a Treaty

signed in Paris on the 18th day of April, 1951), of the

European Economic Community (which was established

by a Treaty which was signed in Rome on the 25th day of

March, 1957) and of the European Atomic Energy

Community (which was established by a Treaty which

was signed in Rome on the 25th day of March, 1957). The

State may ratify the Single European Instrument (which

was signed on behalf of the Member States of the

Communities in Luxembourg on the 17th day of February,

1986, and in the Hague on the 28th day of February,

1986). No provision which is in this Constitution deprives

of legal validity any laws enacted, acts done or actions

which the State accepted, because of the necessities of

the obligations as a member of the Communities, nor

prohibits laws enacted, acts done or actions accepted by

the Communities, or institutions of the Communities, from

having legal force in the State.

ARTICLE 29.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every international treaty in which the State will be

participative must be laid before Dáil Éireann.

ARTICLE 29.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any international treaty which would incur an expense to

the public fund (it) will not be binding on the State unless

Dáil Éireann consents to the terms of the treaty.

ARTICLE 29.5.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

This section does not concern treaties nor agreements on

technical and administrative matters.

ARTICLE 29.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No international treaty will be part of the internal law of

the State except as the Oireachtas/Legislature determines.

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL

ARTICLE 30.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There will be an Attorney General, and it is he who is

adviser to the Government in matters of law and legal

opinions, and he must operate and fulfil every power,

every function and every duty which is conferred or

imposed on him by this Constitution or by law.

ARTICLE 30.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by the President that the Attorney General will be

appointed on his having been nominated by the Taoiseach.

ARTICLE 30.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of every crime and offence that is brought in

any court which is established under Article 34 of this

Constitution, except a court of summary jurisdiction, it is

in the name of the People and at the suit of the Attorney

General, or at the suit of some other person who is

authorised for that in accordance with law, that the charge

will be made.

ARTICLE 30.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Attorney General
’s being a member of the Government

is not permitted.

ARTICLE 30.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Attorney General may give up office at any time by

informing the Taoiseach of that in order to put the matter

before the President.

ARTICLE 30.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Taoiseach may, for reasons which he himself considers

sufficient, ask the Attorney General to give up office.

ARTICLE 30.5.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

If the Attorney General does not act in accordance with

that request the President must put him out of office if the

Taoiseach recommends it to him.

ARTICLE 30.5.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Attorney General must leave office on the Taoiseach
’s

giving up office, but he may continue with his duties until

the Taoiseach
’s successor is appointed.

ARTICLE 30.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint of the foregoing provisions of this

Article it is in accordance with law that the office of the

Attorney General will be regulated, along with the salary

which is payable to the person who will hold that office.

THE COUNCIL OF STATE

ARTICLE 31.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There will be a Council of State to give help and advice to

the President concerning every matter which the President

will seek their counsel on, as regards his operating and

fulfilling the powers and the functions which are stated in

this Constitution are to be operated and fulfilled by him

after taking counsel with the Council of State, and moreover

to perform any other functions which are conferred

on that Council by this Constitution.

ARTICLE 31.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is the following people who will be members of the

Council of State:

i By virtue of office: the Taoiseach, the Tánaiste, the

Chief-Justice, the President of the High-Court, the

Chairman of Dáil Éireann, the Chairman of Seanad

Éireann, and the Attorney General.

ii Every person who has the capability and who wishes

to act as a member of the Council of State, and who

was at one time (a) President or (a) Taoiseach or (a)

Chief-Justice, or (a) President of the Executive Council

of the Irish Free State.

iii Any other people who will be appointed by the

President under this Article, if any person is appointed,

to be members of the Council of State.

ARTICLE 31.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President may at any time and from time to time

appoint whatever other people he deems suitable, / are

deemed suitable by him, from his own counsel, by warrant

under his hand and under his Seal to be members of the

Council of State, but it is not lawful that there be more

than seven people who are appointed in that way as

members of the Council of State at the same time.

ARTICLE 31.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Each member of the Council of State, the first time he will

be at an assembly of that Council as a member of it, must

make the following declaration and put his hand to it:


In the presence of God the Almighty, I , am

promising and declaring solemnly and truthfully to fulfil

my duties as a member of the Council of State faithfully

(and) conscientiously.

ARTICLE 31.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every member of the Council of State who will be

appointed by the President (he) will hold office until the

successor of the President who appointed him takes up

his office, that is unless it happens before that that that

member dies, or gives up office, or that permanent mental

incapacity befalls him, or that he is put out of office.

ARTICLE 31.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any member of the Council of State of those whom the

President will appoint (he) may give up office by informing

the President of that.

ARTICLE 31.7

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President may, for reasons/grounds which are sufficient

to himself, put any person of those whom he

appointed to the Council of State out of office by an order

under his hand and under his Seal.

ARTICLE 31.8

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The President may convene the Council of State (in)

whatever place and time he will arrange for it.

ARTICLE 32

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any powers or functions which it is mentioned concerning

them in this Constitution that it is lawful for the President

to operate or to fulfil them after taking counsel from the

Council of State, the President is not permitted to operate

or fulfil any power or function of them unless he convenes

the Council of State in every case beforehand, and listens

to the members of that Council who will be present.

THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL

ARTICLE 33.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There will be a Comptroller and Auditor General to

regulate all expenditure on behalf of the State, and to

make an audit of every account of money which is

administered by the Oireachtas or under the authority of

the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 33.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by the President that the Comptroller and Auditor

General will be appointed, on being nominated by Dáil

Éireann.

ARTICLE 33.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Comptroller and Auditor General is not permitted to

be a member of either of the Houses of the Oireachtas,

nor to be in any other beneficial post or office.

ARTICLE 33.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Comptroller and Auditor General must put reports

before Dáil Éireann at certain times as (will be) determined/

decided by law.

ARTICLE 33.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to put the Comptroller and Auditor

General out of office except as a result of misbehaviour

or mental incapacity which will be cited, nor even then

unless Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann pass resolutions

demanding that he be put out of office.

ARTICLE 33.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any resolutions of that kind which Dáil Éireann and Seanad

Éireann will pass the Taoiseach must duly give an account

of them / information on them to the President, and send

him a copy of every resolution of that kind under the

certification of the Chairman of the House of the Oireachtas

which passed it.

ARTICLE 33.5.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Immediately after the President receives that report and

copies of those resolutions he must, by order under his

hand and under his Seal, put the Comptroller and Auditor

General out of office.

ARTICLE 33.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint/scope of the foregoing, it is by law

that the conditions and circumstances of the office of the

Comptroller and Auditor General will be determined.

THE COURTS

ARTICLE 34.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in courts which are established by law and by judges

who are appointed in the manner that is set out in this

Constitution that justice will be administered, and it is

publicly that that will be done except in those special

limited cases that will be enjoined by law.

ARTICLE 34.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Those courts will include Courts of First Instance and a

Court of Final Appeal.

ARTICLE 34.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Those Courts of First Instance will include a High-Court

which will have full fundamental jurisdiction, and power

to give a judgement, in every matter and question of law

or fact whether they are civil or criminal.

ARTICLE 34.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Apart from a case for which the contrary is provided by

this Article, the High Court will have jurisdiction as regards

that question of any particular law having or not having

validity having regard to the provisions of this Constitution,

and no question of that kind is permitted to be raised

(through pleading or argument or otherwise) in any Court,

established under this Article or under any other Article

of this Constitution, except the High Court or the Supreme

Court.

ARTICLE 34.3.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No Court will have jurisdiction to put in doubt the validity

of a law or of any provision of a law which is a law that

the President submitted the Bill for it to the Supreme Court

for decision under Article 26 of this Constitution, nor to

put in doubt the validity of a provision of a law if the

President submitted the corresponding provision in the

Bill for that law to the Supreme Court for decision under

that Article 26.

ARTICLE 34.3.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Among the Courts of First Instance, moreover, will be

Courts which will have limited local jurisdiction along

with a right of appeal against them as will be determined

by law.

ARTICLE 34.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

1o It is the Supreme Court which is the title of the Court

of Final Appeal. / The Supreme Court is the title of

the Court of Final Appeal.

2o It is the Chief Justice which is the title of the president

of the Supreme Court. / The Chief Justice is the title

of the president of the Supreme Court.

ARTICLE 34.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Apart from whatever exceptions and within the constraint/

scope of whatever rules that will be enjoined by law, the

Supreme Court will have appellate jurisdiction on all the

judgements of the High Court and, moreover, on those

judgements by other courts that will be enjoined by law.

ARTICLE 34.4.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to enact any law which would put

beyond the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

cases in which questions needed to be settled regarding

any law’s having validity or not, having regard to the

provisions of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 34.4.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

He who will announce the judgement of the Supreme

Court on a question regarding a law’s having validity or

not having regard to the provisions of this Constitution is

that one of the judges of that Court which that Court will

appoint for that (purpose), and it is not permitted to

announce any other opinion on that question, agreeing

or disagreeing with that decision, nor is it permitted to

disclose there being any other opinion of that kind.

ARTICLE 34.4.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There will be no passing over / bypassing the judgement

of the Supreme Court in any case.

ARTICLE 34.5.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every person who will be appointed to be a judge under

this Constitution (he) must make the following declaration

and put his hand to it:


In the presence of God the Almighty I, , (am)

promising and declaring solemnly and truthfully that I

will duly and faithfully perform, to the best of my

knowledge and ability, the office of Chief-Justice (or

according as suits) without fear or bias, without partiality

or malevolence/ill-will to anyone, and that I will uphold

the Constitution and laws of Ireland. God direct and protect

me.

ARTICLE 34.5.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in the presence of the President that the Chief Justice

will make that declaration and put his hand to it, and it is

in the court publicly and in the presence of the Chief

Justice or of the most senior judge of the Supreme Court

who will be available that every other judge of the Supreme

Court and every judge of the High Court and of every

other Court will make that declaration and put his hand

to it.

ARTICLE 34.5.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every judge must make the declaration and put his hand

to it before (he) takes up the responsibilities of the duties

of his office, and at any rate, on a date not later than ten

days after the day of his appointment, or a date which is

later than that as the President will decide.

ARTICLE 34.5.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any judge who will refuse or neglect to make the aforesaid

declaration (it) must be deemed that he has relinquished

his office.

ARTICLE 35.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by the President that the judges of the Supreme Court,

the High Court and every other Court which is established

in pursuance of Article 34 of this Constitution will be

appointed.

ARTICLE 35.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every judge will be free (and) independent as regards the

operation of his judicial functions, with no restriction on

him except this Constitution and the law.

ARTICLE 35.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted that any judge be a member of either

of the Houses of the Oireachtas, nor be in any other gainful

post or office.

ARTICLE 35.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to put a judge of the Supreme Court

nor of the High Court out of office except because of

misconduct or mental disability which will be mentioned,

nor even at that time unless Dáil Éireann and Seanad

Éireann pass resolutions demanding he be put out of office.

ARTICLE 35.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any resolutions of that kind which Dáil Éireann and Seanad

Éireann will pass the Taoiseach must duly give account

of them to the President and send a copy of each of those

resolutions to him under the certification of the Chairman

of the House of the Oireachtas that passed it.

ARTICLE 35.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Immediately after the President receives that account and

copies of those resolutions he must, by order under his

hand and under his Seal, put the judge to whom they

relate out of office.

ARTICLE 35.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to reduce the salary of a judge while

(he) is in office.

ARTICLE 36

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint/scope of the foregoing provisions

of this Constitution which relate to the Courts it is in

accordance with law(s) that the following matters will be

regulated i.e.

i the number of judges of the Supreme Court, and of

the High Court, the salary, age of retirement and

pensions of those judges,

ii the number of judges of every other Court, and the

conditions under which they are appointed, and

iii the constitution and the co-ordination of those Courts,

the division of jurisdiction and work among those

Courts and among those judges, and everything that

relates to procedure.

ARTICLE 37.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any person or any group who are duly authorized by law

to operate limited functions and powers of judgement in

matters that are not criminal matters, if they operate those

functions and powers that operation will not be without

legal validity by reason of anything in this Constitution,

even though that person or group is not a judge or a

court which was appointed or established as a judge or

as a court under this Constitution.

ARTICLE 37.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No adoption of a person which took effect or which is

expressed to have taken effect at any time after the coming

into operation of this Constitution under laws which the

Oireachtas enacted and which is an adoption in pursuance

of an order made by or an authorisation given by any person

or any group which was specified by those laws to operate

those functions and powers did not nor will not lack legal

validity for the sole reason that that person or that group

was not a judge or a court which was appointed or established

as a judge or a court under this Constitution.

TRIAL OF OFFENCES

ARTICLE 38.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

TRIAL IN OFFENCES

It is not permitted to try any person in any criminal case/

prosecution except as is proper according to law.

ARTICLE 38.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Minor offences may be tried at courts of summary jurisdiction.

ARTICLE 38.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Specific courts may be established by law to try offences

in cases regarding which it will be determined, in

accordance with that law, that the ordinary courts are not

adequate to enforce effectively the administration of justice

and to preserve public order and peace.

ARTICLE 38.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by law that the constitution, powers, jurisdiction and

procedure of those specific courts will be arranged.

ARTICLE 38.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Military benches may be established to try people in

offences against military law which it is said they did while

they were under military law, and moreover to cope with

unrest or with armed rebellion.

ARTICLE 38.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

A person of the Defence Forces who is not on (military)

service it is not permitted to try him before any army

court or other military bench in an offence that can be

tried in the civil courts, unless it is a crime which is under

the jurisdiction of any army court or other military bench

under any law to enforce military discipline.

ARTICLE 38.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to try a person in any criminal charge/

prosecution except in the presence of a sworn committee,

except in the case of trial of offences under section 2,

section 3 or section 4 of this Article.

ARTICLE 38.6

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The provisions of Article 34 nor of Article 35 of this

Constitution will not concern any court nor any bench

which will be established under section 3 or section 4 of

this Article.

ARTICLE 39

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

What treason is solely is to undertake war against the

State, or to assist any state or person whatever, or to incite

a person, or to be in conspiracy with a person, to undertake

war against the State, or to make an attempt with arms or

in another violent manner to overthrow the organs of

government which are established by this Constitution,

or someone to have a part (in) or connection with such

an attempt, or to incite any person or to be in conspiracy

with him in order to do it or in order that he have a part

(in) or connection with it.

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

ARTICLE 40.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

BASIC RIGHTS

Personal Rights

It is reckoned that all the citizens are equal as human

persons in the presence of the law.

But it is not be be understood from that that the State will

not duly, in its enactments, have regard to the difference

there is between people in their physical attributes and in

their moral attributes and in their societal function.

ARTICLE 40.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State is not permitted to confer a title of nobility on

any person.

ARTICLE 40.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No citizen is permitted to accept a title of nobility nor a

title of honour except with the assent beforehand of the

Government.

ARTICLE 40.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State guarantees not to interfere by its laws with the

personal rights of any citizen, and it further guarantees to

defend and assert those rights with its laws in so far as it

is possible.

ARTICLE 40.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will, in particular, by its laws, protect the life

and person and good reputation and property rights of

every citizen from unjust attack to the extent of its power,

and assert them in a case of injustice.

ARTICLE 40.3.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State acknowledges the right of the unborn to their

life and, having due regard to the equal right of the mother

to her life, it guarantees not to interfere through its laws

with that right and it guarantees further to protect and

assert that right with its laws in so far as it is possible.

ARTICLE 40.3.3° (cont’d)

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

This susbsection will not limit freedom to travel between

the State and another state.

This subsection will not limit freedom to get information

or to make information available in the State as regards

services which are lawfully available in another state but

that (is) within the scope/constraint of whatever conditions

that may be laid down by law.

ARTICLE 40.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to take his personal freedom from any

citizen except in accordance with law.

ARTICLE 40.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

When any person makes a complaint, or a complaint is

made on behalf of any person, to the High-Court or to

any judge of it stating that that person is being kept a

prisoner unlawfully, the High Court and any judge and

every judge of it to whom that complaint is made must

inquire immediately concerning that complaint and may

order the one keeping that person a prisoner to bring that

person personally before the High Court (on a) day that

is named and to certify in writing what the grounds for

his imprisonment are, and the High Court must, when

that person is brought personally before that Court and

after giving an opportunity to the one keeping him a

prisoner to prove that the imprisonment is a just

imprisonment, order that that person be released from

that imprisonment if that Court does not consider it certain

that it is in accordance with the law that he is being held.

ARTICLE 40.4.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In a case of a person who is said to be being unlawfully

kept a prisoner’s being brought in person before the High

Court in pursuance of an order to that effect being made

under this section and that the Court is certain that that

person is being kept a prisoner in accordance with a

particular law but that that law is invalid having regard to

the provisions of this Constitution, the High Court must

submit that question of whether that law is or is not valid

to the Supreme Court for judgement in the form of a

stated case and (it) can, while that question is being so

submitted for judgement or at any time after that, allow

that person to have his freedom, subject to those bonds

and conditions that the High Court will appoint until the

Supreme Court will give a judgement on the question

which will be thus submitted for its judgement.

ARTICLE 40.4.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Three judges constitute a High Court in any particular

case, in which a person who is said to be being kept a

prisoner unlawfully is brought in person before the High

Court in pursuance of an order to that effect made under

this section, if the President of the High Court or, if he is

not available, the most senior judge of that Court who is

/ will be available orders, as regards that case, that it have

that complement and one judge constitutes a High Court

in every other case of that kind.

ARTICLE 40.4.5O

LITERAL ENGISH TRANSLATION

In the case of the High Court or a judge of it making an

order under this section ordering a person under sentence

of death to be brought before (it) in person, the High

Court or that judge of it must also order that the exercise

of that death sentence be delayed until that person is

brought in person before the High Court and it is

determined whether it is lawful to keep that person a

prisoner or it is not lawful and if it is determined, after

delaying that implementation, that it is lawful to keep

that person a prisoner, the High Court will appoint a day

to implement that death sentence and that death sentence

will have effect subject to the day so appointed being put

in place of the day which was first arranged to implement

that death sentence.

ARTICLE 40.4.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But any one of the acts of the Defence Forces during

unrest or armed rebellion, it is not permitted to plead

anything that is in this section to prohibit or regulate or

hinder that act.

ARTICLE 40.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

His place of residence is secure for every citizen, and it is

not permitted to go into it forcibly except in accordance

with law.

ARTICLE 40.6.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State guarantees freedom to operate the following

rights but that being subject to public morality and order

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oi

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The right of the citizens to reveal their certitudes and

their opinions without hindrance.

ARTICLE 40.6.1oi (cont’d)

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But because the training of the mind of the people is of

such importance to the welfare of the people, the State

will endeavour to ensure that the organs of the public

mind, for example, the radio and the press and the cinema,

will not be used to break the basis of the public morality

or order or the authority of the State. At the same time

those organs will keep the freedom which is their right to

declare opinions and including opinions evaluative of

Government policy.

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oi (contd.)

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The publication or recitation of anything blasphemous or

rebellious or obscene is a punishable crime in accordance

with law.

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oii

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The right of the citizens to come on assembly peacefully

unarmed.

Provision may be made in accordance with law to prevent

or regulate assemblies from which it is determined in

accordance with law that there is a danger that breach of

peace will come or that they are a danger or an annoyance

to the people in general, and moreover assemblies near

either of the Houses of the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oiii

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The right of the citizens to establish associations and

societies.

But it is permitted to enact laws to regulate and direct the

operation of the aforesaid right for the good of the people.

ARTICLE 40.6.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No distinction, with regard to politics or religion or class,

is permitted in laws which will regulate the method of

operating the right to establish associations and societies

and the right to come together in free-assembly.

ARTICLE 41.1.1O

THE FAMILY AN TEAGHLACH

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State acknowledges that the Family is the basic primary

group-unit of/for society according to nature, and that it

is a moral institution which has inalienable invincible rights

which are more ancient and higher than any human statute.

ARTICLE 41.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Since it is the Family which is the necessary foundation

for the societal order and since it is imperative for the

welfare of the Nation and of the State, the State guarantees

to preserve the composition and authority of the Family.

ARTICLE 41.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Specifically, the State acknowledges that the woman gives

the State, through her life in the family household,

assistance/support without which the welfare of the people

could not be achieved.

ARTICLE 41.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

For that reason, the State will endeavour to ensure that

mothers of a family, because of want, will not have to

engage in work and neglect their duties in the household

because of that.

ARTICLE 41.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Since it is on Marriage that the Family is founded the State

takes it upon itself to give special protection to the order

of marriage and to defend it from attack.

ARTICLE 41.3.2O (before amendment)

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to enact any law which would give

power to dissolve a marriage.

ARTICLE 41.3.2O (as amended)

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

A Court which will be specified by law may give a

dissolution of marriage in the case, but only in the case,

that it has ascertained –

i that, on the date of the initiation of the proceedings,

the spouses had spent a period of at least four years,

or periods of at least four years in total, living apart

from each other during the previous five years,

ii that no reasonable expectation exists that there will

be a compromise between the spouses,

iii that such an arrangement exists, or that such an

arrangement will be made, that the Court thinks

proper having regard to the circumstances, for the

spouses, for any children of either of them or of both

of them and for any other person prescribed by law,

and

iv that any further conditions prescribed by law are

fulfilled.

ARTICLE 41.3.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In the case of the marriage of anybody dissolved under

the civil law of any other State and that marriage, being

legally valid, (and) still existing under the law which will

be in force at the time within the jurisdiction of the

Government and the Parliament which is established under

this Constitution, that person cannot enter a marriage which

would have legal validity within that jurisdiction while

the other person who was in the bond of marriage that

was thus dissolved is alive.

ARTICLE 42.1

EDUCATION

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State acknowledges that the Family is the primary

connate teacher for the child, and (it) guarantees not to

interfere with the inalienable right nor with the inalienable

obligation of parents to provide education according to

their means for their family in matters of religion, morality,

intellect, body and sociality.

ARTICLE 42.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Parents can provide that education for their family at home

or in private schools or in schools which are acknowledged

or which are established by the State.

ARTICLE 42.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State is not permitted to compel parents, against their

conscience or their lawful choice, to send their family to

schools (which are) established by the State or to any

particular type of school (which is) named by the State.

ARTICLE 42.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But since the State is the guardian of the welfare of the

people it must, because of the circumstances of the day,

make it compulsory to give a certain minimum education

to the children in moral, intellectual and societal affairs.

ARTICLE 42.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State must make provision for primary education to

be available free, and make an effort to help reasonably

and to augment (any) educational initiative both private

and communal and, when it is a requirement for the

welfare of the people, to provide other educational facilities

or foundations, having due regard, however, for the rights

of parents, especially as regards the formation of the mind

in religious and moral affairs.

ARTICLE 42.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In uncommon cases when it happens, for corporal reasons

or for moral reasons, that the parents do not do their

duties to their children, the State must, since the State is

the guardian of the welfare of the people, make an effort

through appropriate action to take the place of the parents,

always having due regard, however, for the natural invincible

rights of the child.

ARTICLE 43.1.1O

PRIVATE PROPERTY

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Private Property/Assets

The State acknowledges, because man has the gift of

reason, that he has a natural right to have worldly assets

of his own privately, a right which is more ancient than

human statute.

ARTICLE 43.1.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

For that reason, the State guarantees not to enact any law

attempting to set aside that right, nor the ordinary right of

man to assign and to bequeath and to receive assets/

property as an inheritance.

ARTICLE 43.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But the State acknowledges that it is fitting, in civil society,

to regulate the operation of the rights which are mentioned

in the foregoing provisions of this Article in accordance

with the basic rules of the societal justice.

ARTICLE 43.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

For that reason, the State may, as will be necessary, put a

limit to the operation of the aforementioned rights in order

to bring together that operation and the welfare of the

people.

ARTICLE 44.1

RELIGION

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Faith/Religion

The State acknowledges that to be publicly adored with

homage is due to God the Almighty. The State will have

veneration for his name, and will give reverence and

honour to Religion.

ARTICLE 44.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Freedom of conscience and free licence/liberty to profess

and practise religion is guaranteed to every citizen,

provided that not be to the detriment of public order nor

to public morality.

ARTICLE 44.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State guarantees not to endow any system of faith/

religion.

ARTICLE 44.2.3O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State is not permitted to put a person under any

disability nor to make any distinction because of faith/

religion or profession of faith or standing in matters of

faith.

ARTICLE 44.2.4O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Legislation by which State aid is provided for schools it is

not permitted to discriminate in it between schools which

are under the management of some religious classes rather

than others / one or other religious group or for it to do

harm to the right of any child to attend a school which

gets public money and not attend religious instruction in

that school.

ARTICLE 44.2.5O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every religious grouping has the right to manage its own

affairs, and to have property, both movable and immovable,

of its own, and to get it and administer it, and to

maintain foundations for religious and charitable purposes.

ARTICLE 44.2.6O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to take the property of any religious

grouping or any educational foundations from them except

for necessary works for public utility, and that after paying

them compensation.

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL POLICY

ARTICLE 45

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

BASIC DIRECTIONS FOR A SOCIETAL POLICY

It is as a general guide for the Oireachtas that the basic

rules for a societal policy that are laid out in this Article

were intended. The responsibility for applying those basic

rules in making laws will be on the Oireachtas alone, and

a question concerning that application cannot be tried by

any Court under any one of the provisions of this Constitution.

ARTICLE 45.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will do its utmost to advance the welfare of all

the people through ensuring and preserving as far as it is

able a societal order, in which justice and charity will rule

every institution which relates to the national life.

ARTICLE 45.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will, specifically, direct its policy in a way that

will ensure:-

i That the citizens (and all of them, both men and

women, have a right to a sufficient livelihood) will

obtain, through their occupations, the means of

making reasonable provision for the needs of their

households.

ARTICLE 45.2.ii

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

That (the) proprietary right and control of (the) worldly

wealth of the people will be divided among private persons

and among the various classes in the way that will best

contribute towards the welfare of the people.

ARTICLE 45.2.iii

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Specifically, that the operation of free competition will

not be allowed to advance in a way that there would

result from it that a small number of people had in their

own hands the ownership or the control of essential goods

to the detriment of the community.

ARTICLE 45.2.iv

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

That the welfare of the whole community is the permanent

and principal objective which will govern in all that

concerns the control of credit.

ARTICLE 45.2.v

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

That as many households as possible in accordance with

the circumstances of life will be established on the land

in economic security.

ARTICLE 45.3.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will look eagerly at private initiative in industrial

and commercial affairs and will augment/support it when

that is necessary.

ARTICLE 45.3.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will endeavour to ensure that private enterprise

is / will be conducted so that it is certain that goods will

be produced and distributed with reasonable competency

and that the community will be protected from unjust

profit.

ARTICLE 45.4.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State takes upon itself specifically to protect the

economic welfare of the classes in the community whose

power is least and, when it will be necessary, to give

subsistence help to the infirm, to the widow, to the orphan

and to the old.

ARTICLE 45.4.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will endeavour to ensure that the strength and

health of workers, both men and women, nor the tender

youth of children will not be wronged, and that citizens

will not have to, because of want, take up occupations

that do not suit their kind or their age or their strength.

AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE 46.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION

It is permitted to amend any provision of this Constitution,

by change or by addition or by repeal, in the manner

provided by this Article.

ARTICLE 46.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every proposal to amend this Constitution (it) must be

initiated in Dáil Éireann as a Bill, and when it is passed or

deemed passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas it must

be submitted to the people for determination by

Referendum in accordance with the law which will be in

force as regards the Referendum at the time.

ARTICLE 46.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Its being
“an Act to amend the Constitution” must be

mentioned in every Bill of that kind.

ARTICLE 46.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any Bill in which there will be a proposal or proposals to

amend this Constitution it is not permitted to have any

other proposal in it.

ARTICLE 46.5

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any Bill in which there will be a proposal to amend this

Constitution the President must immediately put his hand

to it, when he has been satisfied that the provisions of

this Article were fulfilled regarding it and that the people

duly consented to that proposal in accordance with the

provisions of section 1 of Article 47 of this Constitution,

and the President must duly promulgate it as a law.

THE REFERENDUM

ARTICLE 47.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every proposal (which is) made to amend this Constitution

and which is submitted to the people for determination

by Referendum, it must be deemed, for the purpose of

Article 46 of this Constitution, that the people consent to

that proposal if it happens, after submitting it thus to the

people for determination, that the majority of the votes

that are given in that Referendum are given in favour of

enacting it into law.

ARTICLE 47.2.1O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every proposal, which is not a proposal for the amendment

of the Constitution, which is submitted to the people for

determination by Referendum it must be deemed that the

people reject it if the majority of the votes that are given

in that Referendum are given against enacting it into law,

and the amount of votes so given against enacting it into

law is not less than a thirty-three and a third per cent

share of the number of electors that are on the roll.

ARTICLE 47.2.2O

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every proposal, (which is) not a proposal for the

amendment of the Constitution, which is submitted to the

people for determination by Referendum it must be

deemed, for the purposes of Article 27 of this Constitution,

that the people consent to it if they do not reject it in

accordance with the provisions of the foregoing subsection

of this section.

ARTICLE 47.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every citizen who has the right to vote in an election for

members of Dáil Éireann (he) has the right to vote in a

Referendum.

ARTICLE 47.4

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint/scope of the aforementioned matters

it is by law that the Referendum will be regulated.

REPEAL OF CONSTITUTION OF SAORSTÁT ÉIREANN AND CONTINUANCE OF LAWS

ARTICLE 48

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

REPEALING THE CONSTITUTION OF THE IRISH FREE

STATE AND PERPETUATING LAWS

The Constitution which will be in force for the Irish Free

State immediately before the day of the coming into

operation of this Constitution and the Constitution of the

Irish Free State Act, 1922, in so far as that Act or any

provision of it will be in force at that time, they are repealed

by this and they will be repealed (on) that day and from

then on.

ARTICLE 49.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every power, function, right and prerogative that was

operable in the Irish Free State or with regard to the Irish

Free State immediately before the 11th day of the Month

of December, 1936, whether by virtue of the Constitution

which was then in force or not, by the authority which

had the executive power of the Irish Free State at that

time, it is hereby declared that they all belong to the

people.

ARTICLE 49.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Except in so far as provision is made by this Constitution,

or that provision will be made hereafter by law, so that

any of those powers, functions, rights or prerogatives will

be operated, by any organ which is established by this

Constitution, it is hereby enacted that it is not lawful and

it is not possible to operate those powers, functions, rights,

and prerogatives in the State or with regard to the State

except by the Government or with the authority of the

Government.

ARTICLE 49.3

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The Government is successor to the Government of the

Irish Free State with regard to all property, assets, rights

and liabilities.

ARTICLE 50.1

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The laws which will be in force in the Irish Free State

immediately before the day of the coming into operation

of this Constitution will continue to be in full force and in

full effect, within the constraint of this Constitution and to

the extent that they are not against it, until they or any

part of them are repealed or amended by enactment by

the Oireachtas.

ARTICLE 50.2

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Laws which will be enacted before the coming into

operation of this Constitution and in which will be stated

that they are to come into force after that, will come into

force in accordance with what is stated in them unless

the Oireachtas enacts the contrary.

For the Glory of God

and

the Honour of Ireland.

End of Nations - EU Takeover and the Lisbon Treaty